Profession, earnings and gender: an analysis with the Indian labor force survey

This study analyzes the employment distribution of women of working age by occupation in all their activities in usual main status in the Periodic Labor Force Survey for 2017-2018 taking into account household-specific factors. and personal characteristics of workers using a multinomial logit. model. The study finds that gender differences in returns to schooling favor female workers, but they earned less than men in almost all occupations and employment statuses. The effect of education is stronger in the selection of high-paying jobs.

Gender differences in occupation have been widely considered to be one of the important factors contributing to gender differences in earnings (Groshen 1991; Macpherson and Hirsch 1995; Blau et al 2013). Traditionally, analysis of labor market supply uses differences in human capital accumulation between men and women as the main explanatory factor for gender differences in job choices and income (salary and non-wage). wages). While the gender gap in educational attainment has narrowed over time and today in many cases the education gap has reversed in favor of women, the gender pay gap has increased in different sectors. Thus, gender differences in income cannot be fully explained by differences in human capital variables such as education and experience between men and women. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the causes and consequences of differences in the gender distribution of employment as an area of ​​research.

Most of the studies available in the ancient literature have primarily attributed the pattern of occupational segregation by gender by examining differences in human capital accumulation and examining the incidence of discrimination between occupations. In recent literature, gender differences in preference for job attributes have been suggested as a potential explanation for gender differences in occupational choice and earnings. Recent studies have also used gender differences in cognitive skills to analyze differences in occupations and wages between men and women (Bertrand 2011). It is observed that women have a comparative advantage in cognitive skills over manual skills, and these facts are likely to explain why women are more absorbed by cognitive intensive jobs (Welch 2000).

Michael A. Bynum